Galaxies - Galactic nebulae - Star clusters
A galaxy is a large collection of stars, planetary systems, gas nebulae, dust clouds, dark matter and other astronomical objects with a total mass of typically 109 to 1013 solar masses bound by gravity. Their diameter can be several hundred thousand light years.
Galactic nebulae are gas or dust regions that are stimulated to shine by hot stars (emission nebula, mostly red) or reflect their light (reflection nebula, mostly blue).
Because of the little light the stars give off, many pictures have to be taken for a single picture - the little light of the stars or galactic gas nebulae has to be collected in many pictures.
In order to compensate for the earth's rotation during this long exposure time, the telescope / lens must track the stars / galaxies very closely. This is done using a special motorized device (mount).
The individual recordings are then combined on the computer using special Software (PixInsight, StarrySkyStacker, AstroPixelProcessor, ...) for the final astro record.